I’m a hacker, and I love to build stuff for the Web.

 

Modern Accounting on the Open Web

Tuesday 18th January, 2011

Accounting and bookkeeping are essential aspects of running any business. Usually considered dull and tedious by laymen, the books of a company provide a unique insight into its operation. Using the information contained therein, perhaps supplemented by data from other sources, novel ways of minimizing costs and maximizing revenues may be discovered.

The advent of the computer should have been enough. By modelling a company as a complex information network, the in- and out-flows of each part of the business will act as signals and semaphores revealing reckless spending, potential embezzlement, or unsuccessful ventures. Collecting information allows for an empirical, scientific approach to management, based on actual performance, and backed up by numbers.

Unfortunately, the landscape of publicly-available accounting software is rather poor. Most is either closed-source or GPL. I can find no examples which observe the UNIX philosophy of simplicity and modularity. Extensibility is difficult even with open-source applications: most are written in compiled languages, and/or store their data in proprietary or obscure formats. The GPL acts as a major obstacle to commercial contribution, so companies are more likely to work on in-house proprietary solutions.

Up The Asset is a reimagination of accounting software for the modern age. Based on the proven, centuries-old principle of double-entry bookkeeping, yet using nothing but open web standards and formats stored in plain-text files, it aims to bring to accounting the same breath of fresh air which git brought to version control. At the moment, only a small chunk of the system has been implemented, but it already feels promising (if I say so myself).

Because the system is nothing but text and cross-platform executables which operate on that text, it is fully extensible. The use of RDF means you can supplement the core UTA vocabulary with your own domain-specific (or even organization-specific) ontology. Scripting or extending the application itself is easy thanks to the power of Ruby. The excellent RDF.rb and Spira libraries allow you to operate on the RDF data at the highest or lowest levels.

An Example

The most basic action is recording a single transaction in the general journal. This shell command:

  $ uta record 30 assets/current/cash revenue/service "Consulting" \
    --with-comment --on 2010-12-28
Gave John Doe my services for 1 hour in exchange for $30.
^D

Evaluates to the following Ruby code:

  Transaction.generate do |tr|
  tr.label = "Consulting"
  tr.comment = "Gave John Doe my services for 1 hour in exchange for $30."
  tr.date = Date.civil(2010, 12, 28)
  tr.debit  30, Account["assets/current/cash"]
  tr.credit 30, Account["revenue/service"]
end.save!

Which generates this RDF (shown in Turtle):

  # Prefixes shown here for illustrative purposes.
@base <file:///Users/zacharyvoase/books/transactions> .
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix this: <file:///Users/zacharyvoase/books/> .
@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix uta: <http://uptheasset.org/ontology> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

<this:transactions#1a183830-f465-012d-dcb8-001ff3d30363> a uta:Transaction ;
    dc:date "2010-12-28Z"^^xsd:date ;
    dc:identifier <urn:uuid:1a183830-f465-012d-dcb8-001ff3d30363> ;
    rdfs:label "Consulting"@en ;
    rdfs:comment "Gave John Doe my services for 1 hour in exchange for $30."@en ;
    uta:entry
        [ a uta:Debit ;
          uta:account <this:accounts#assets/current/cash> ;
          uta:amount 30 ] ,
        [ a uta:Credit ;
          uta:account <this:accounts#revenue/service> ;
          uta:amount 30 ] .

These RDF statements will be appended to ~/books/transactions.

More Ideas

There’s nothing to stop you writing your own interface to the underlying data model. The ontology and software have been released into the public domain, so you’re free to modify either and use them as you wish, devoid of any encumberances. Here are some ideas:

  • A hosted accounting web service, using the Ruby library.
  • A supplementary sales ledger ontology, using RDF inference to convert sales entries into transactions in the general journal (still maintaining a linked record of ‘sales’ as a first-class concept).
  • A command-line interface for time tracking which creates journal entries as transactions to/from ‘time’ accounts (in a currency of minutes).
  • An invoicing and receipting system, using LaTeX to generate PDFs or HTML. Combine this with GnuPG for proper cryptographic security.
  • An ontology for tracking creditors and debtors, including a CLI for calculating outstanding balances and sending the appropriate invoices/notifications.
  • A CLI using roqet to produce your income and cash flow statements, with printed reports via LaTeX.
  • Using R Sparql to pull your account data into R, perform heavyweight statistical analysis, and produce charts (e.g. of account balance and transaction volume over time).

The code is actively being developed on GitHub, with documentation hosting at http://uptheasset.org/. If you’re interested, watch the project. If you have any suggestions, use the GitHub issue tracker; better yet, submit a pull request.